In 1912, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of Sherlock Holmes, wrote a short story about a war fought from underwater submersibles that included the sinking of passenger ships. At the time, it was dismissed by the British generals and admirals of the day not because the idea of submarines was technically unfeasible, but because no one could imagine that any nation would be so depraved as to sink civilian merchant ships. The future of war more often than not surprises us less because of some fantastic technical or engineering dimension but because of some human, political, or moral threshold that we had never imagined wanting to cross. As Lawrence Freedman shows, the future of war has a past and a present. Ideas of war, strategies for warfare and its practice, and organizing principles of war all have rich and varied origins which have shaped the minds of those who conceive the next war. Freedman shows how war can be studied systematically and empirically to provide a firm foundation for enlightened policy. The Future of War - which covers civil wars to as yet unknown nuclear conflicts, proxy wars (real) to the Cold War (not), fashionably small wars to the War to End All Wars (it didn't) - is filled with insight and fascinating nuggets of military history and culture from one of the most brilliant military and strategic historians of his generation. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Michael Page. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/high/001384/bk_high_001384_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! A proxy war is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used whole governments as proxies, terrorist groups, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war. Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain nation usually have their own interests, which are often divergent from those of their patron.
In Asia the "Age of Extremes" witnessed many forms of mass violence and genocide, related to the rise and fall of the Japanese Empire, the proxy wars of the Cold War, and the anti-colonial nation building processes that often led to new conflicts and civil wars. The present volume is considered an introductory reader that deals with different forms of mass violence and genocide in Asia, discusses the perspectives of victims and perpetrators alike.
Scientific Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - General, , language: English, abstract: Sony, Toyota, Samurai and Kamikaze - these words don't seem to have a lot of similarity in common, but they all four symbolize the aggressive Japanese mentality with its urge for expanding the national economy and the nation's glory. 'In the 1980s, Japan pioneered a new kind of superpower. Tokyo had no army to speak of, no puppet regimes to prop up, and no proxy wars to mind. Just an economy. What made Japan a superpower, more than just a wealthy country, was the way its great firms staked claim to a collective intellectual high ground that left competitors, even in the United States, scrambling to reverse-engineer Japanese successes. Seeking guidance on everything from 'quality circles' to 'just in time' inventory management, U.S. corporate executives bought stacks of books on Japanese management techniques. The key to Japan's economic ascendance was not ideology, at least not by Cold War standards; but it was a method, it drove the most dynamic economy of the era, and it was indisputably Japanese. ' Douglas McGray explains it correctly. The continued success of the Japanese companies at the different world markets and especially at the markets in Europe was absolutely impressing and overwhelming and for some people even frightening. With extremely high growth rates, the country developed in only 30 years from a small and nearly unnoticed industrial nation to one of the few leading economic powers in the world. With this paper I want to give an overall view on Japan and try to investigate what exactly stands behind this 'economic wonder'.
Over the past thirty years, while the United States has turned either a blind or dismissive eye, Iran has emerged as a nation every bit as capable of altering America's destiny as traditional superpowers Russia and China. Indeed, one of this book's central arguments is that, in some ways, Iran's grip on America's future is even tighter. As ex-CIA operative Robert Baer masterfully shows, Iran has maneuvered itself into the elite superpower ranks by exploiting Americans' false perceptions of what Iran is&#8212;by letting us believe it is a country run by scowling religious fanatics, too preoccupied with theocratic jostling and terrorist agendas to strengthen its political and economic foundations. The reality is much more frightening&#8212;and yet contained in the potential catastrophe is an implicit political response that, if we're bold enough to adopt it, could avert disaster. Baer's on-the-ground sleuthing and interviews with key Middle East players&#8212;everyone from an Iranian ayatollah to the king of Bahrain to the head of Israel's internal security&#8212;paint a picture of the centuries-old Shia nation that is starkly the opposite of the one normally drawn. For example, Iran's hate-spouting President Ahmadinejad is by no means the true spokesman for Iranian foreign policy, nor is Iran making it the highest priority to become a nuclear player. Even so, Baer has discovered that Iran is currently engaged in a soft takeover of the Middle East, that the proxy method of war-making and co-option it perfected with Hezbollah in Lebanon is being exported throughout the region, that Iran now controls a significant portion of Iraq, that it is extending its influence over Jordan and Egypt, that the Arab Emirates and other Gulf States are being pulled into its sphere, and that it will shortly have a firm hold on the world's oil spigot. By mixing anecdotes with information gleaned from clandestine sources, Baer superbly demonstrates that Iran, far from being a wild-eyed rogue state, is a rational actor&#8212;one skilled in the game of nations and so effective at thwarting perceived Western colonialism that even rival Sunnis relish fighting under its banner. For U.S. policy makers, the choices have narrowed: either cede the world's most important energy corridors to a nation that can match us militarily with its asymmetric capabilities (which include the use of suicide bombers)&#8212;or deal with the devil we know. We might just find that in allying with Iran, we'll have increased not just our own security but that of all Middle East nations.The alternative&#8212;to continue goading Iran into establishing hegemony over the Muslim world&#8212;is too chilling to contemplate.
'The Bet uses a legendary wager between the Stanford biologist Paul Ehrlich and the conservative University of Illinois economist Julian Simon to examine the roots of modern environmentalism and its relationship to broader political conflicts in the nation. Ehrlich, author of the landmark 1968 book The Population Bomb, believed that rising populations would cause overconsumption, scarcity, and disastrous famines. Simon countered that flexible markets, technological change, and human ingenuity would allowsocieties to adapt to changing circumstances and continue to improve human welfare. In 1980, they made a much-ballyhooed bet about the future prices of five metals that served as a proxy for their arguments about the future. The Bet weaves intellectual biographies of Ehrlich and Simon into the history of late twentieth-century environmental politics and other struggles of the era between liberals and conservatives. Humanity's larger gamble on the future still remains unresolved. By wrestling with the different sides of these arguments, The Bet encourages a more nuanced approach to environmental problems, one that acknowledges the limitations of both ecology and economics in guiding policy, and that instead emphasizes the conflicting values that underlie political choices. The Bet is structured around three bets: first, the $1000 bet that Ehrlich (and two colleagues) made with Simon over the prices of chromium, copper, nickel, tin, and tungsten; second, the bet that the United States faced in the 1980 presidential election in choosing between Carter and Reagan; and third, the larger gamble that we as a society continue to make as we make choices'--
'Israel is in a tough neighbourhood.' That is the wry saying of Israelis who live in this tiny strip of land in the Middle East, the nation state of the Jews but a true democracy with an independent judiciary and press freedom which allows religious freedom to all citizens-Jews, Christians, and Muslims, among others. It is a country which passionately desires peace with its neighbours and seeks to establish international trading and humanitarian and cultural ties, sharing the many advanced technologies it has developed in the fields of agriculture, science, IT, and medicine. Yet it is surrounded by countries ideologically driven and fanatically dedicated to its total destruction, especially the annihilation of the Jews. The country posing the greatest threat to Israel is Iran, which is establishing huge arsenals of guided missiles in Lebanon, Syria, and Gaza while arming and training huge proxy armies of known terrorist organisations, such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Gaza, and Islamic jihadists in Syria. Their plan is to attack Israel in a pincer movement with hundreds of thousands of guided missiles fired from Lebanon, Syria, and Gaza, inflicting death and destruction to such an extent that it severely weakens Israel's powerful defence systems and allows a massive invasion of ground troops to conquer Israel and ethnically cleanse the country of its Jews and Christians. The Iranians and their proxy armies know that the missile strike is essential to winning this war because without it, Israel has the capacity to crush the ground troop invasion. This unfolding situation now poses imminent disaster for Israel if they cannot neutralise this threat of missile attack. But Israel has a secret weapon which can disable missiles, and it must do so without the knowledge of the enemy. The challenge now is how to deploy their new weapon without its detection and capture in enemy territory because the Iranians have been alerted to its possible existence and are doing everything possible to overcome this threat to their arsenal. The attack date is now brought forward to a matter of weeks away. Israel needs a miracle to win through before then. Then from an unlikely source comes a secret device which could protect the new weapon from detection, but it's now a race against time to test it and still succeed at disabling the entire missile arsenal threatening Israel before the missiles are launched in the first phase of the Iranians' attack plan. The unfolding drama plays out not just in the field of battle but also in a secret laboratory in an Australian outback town and in the boardrooms of the leaders and the chief military advisors of Iran, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Can Israel be saved from the imminent threat of total destruction from a determined and fanatical enemy?
From its birth in the late 1990s as the jihadist dream of terrorist leader Abu Musab al Zarqawi, the Islamic State (known by a variety of names, including ISIS, ISIL, and al Qaeda in Iraq) has grown into a massive enterprise, redrawing national borders across the Middle East and subjecting an area larger than the United Kingdom to its own vicious brand of Sharia law. In ISIS: The Terror Nation, world-renowned terrorism expert Loretta Napoleoni builds on her international best-selling The Islamic Phoenix, with new chapters on the Islamic State's recruitment of Western women, economic strategy, and recent terrorist attacks around the world. Napoleoni takes us beyond the headlines, demonstrating that while Western media portrays the Islamic State as little more than a gang of thugs on a winning streak, the organization is proposing a new model for nation building. Waging a traditional war of conquest to carve out the twenty-first-century version of the original Caliphate, ISIS uses modern technology to recruit and fundraise while engaging the local population in the day-to-day running of the new state. Rising from the ashes of failing jihadist enterprises, the Islamic State has shown a deep understanding of Middle Eastern politics, fully exploiting proxy war and shell-state tactics. This is not another terrorist network but a formidable enemy in tune with the new modernity of the current world disorder. As Napoleoni writes, 'Ignoring these facts is more than misleading and superficial, it is dangerous. 'Know your enemy' remains the most important adage in the fight against terrorism.'
Think you know how the game of baseball began? Think again. Forget Abner Doubleday and Cooperstown. Forget Alexander Joy Cartwright and the New York Knickerbockers. Instead, meet Daniel Lucius Adams, William Rufus Wheaton, and Louis Fenn Wadsworth, each of whom has a stronger claim to baseball paternity than Doubleday or Cartwright. But did baseball even have a father&#8212;or did it just evolve from other bat-and-ball games? John Thorn, baseball's preeminent historian, examines the creation story of the game and finds it all to be a gigantic lie, not only the Doubleday legend, so long recognized with a wink and a nudge. From its earliest days baseball was a vehicle for gambling (much like cricket, a far more popular game in early America), a proxy form of class warfare, infused with racism as was the larger society, invigorated if ultimately corrupted by gamblers, hustlers, and shady entrepreneurs. Thorn traces the rise of the New York version of the game over other variations popular in Massachusetts and Philadelphia. He shows how the sport's increasing popularity in the early decades of the nineteenth century mirrored the migration of young men from farms and small towns to cities, especially New York. And he charts the rise of secret professionalism and the origin of the notorious 'reserve clause,&#8221; essential innovations for gamblers and capitalists. No matter how much you know about the history of baseball, you will find something new in every chapter. Thorn also introduces us to a host of early baseball stars who helped to drive the tremendous popularity and growth of the game in the post-Civil War era: Jim Creighton, perhaps the first true professional player; Candy Cummings, the pitcher who claimed to have invented the curveball; Albert Spalding, the ballplayer who would grow rich from the game and shape its creation myth; Hall of Fame brothers George and Harry Wright; Cap Anson, the first man to record three thousand hits and a virulent racist; and many others. Add bluff, bluster, and bravado, and toss in an illicit romance, an unknown son, a lost ball club, an epidemic scare, and you have a baseball detective story like none ever written. Thorn shows how a small religious cult became instrumental in the commission that was established to determine the origins of the game and why the selection of Abner Doubleday as baseball's father was as strangely logical as it was patently absurd. Entertaining from the first page to the last, Baseball in the Garden of Eden is a tale of good and evil, and the snake proves the most interesting character. It is full of heroes, scoundrels, and dupes; it contains more scandal by far than the 1919 Black Sox World Series fix. More than a history of the game, Baseball in the Garden of Eden tells the story of nineteenth-century America, a land of opportunity and limitation, of glory and greed&#8212;all present in the wondrous alloy that is our nation and its pastime.